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One requirement from OSHA is that every employer must conduct a hazard assessment. The tool to use in order to meet this requirement is called a job hazard analysis (JHA) (sometimes also called a job safety analysis (JSA)). I’ve seen different formats for this and in the military, we use something called a deliberate risk assessment worksheet. Regardless, the process is essentially the same. The JHA focuses on the worker (the individual who could potentially be injured), what they are doing (the job or task), what they are doing it with (the tools), and where they are doing it (the environment). The JHA lists all of the steps involved in the task and evaluates these four components in order to identify any hazards that exist.
Where to Begin?
Here is an example of a JHA form to give you an idea of how to structure it:
Great, Then What?
The goal with the JHA is to then find ways to mitigate those hazards you identify, in order to make the job safer for the employee. Ways to mitigate work hazards typically fall into one of these three categories (and would be annotated in the “Control Measures” column on the JHA above):
- Engineering Controls – when possible, the facility manager should engineer controls into a job that make it physically impossible for the worker to be harmed by the hazard. Examples of engineering controls include guards on moving machinery parts, physical barriers preventing employees from entering dangerous areas, etc. This type of control is something that is engineered into the facility itself and not something that the employee must remember.
- Administrative Controls – when implementing an engineering control is not possible, FMs should implement administrative controls to protect employees. These are processes or procedures that must be followed by all employees when undertaking a job or task. LOTO is an example of an administrative control.
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – PPE is the third layer of protection and the last control to consider. PPE can be gloves, masks, hearing protection, suits, etc. It is anything that the employee uses or wears that protects them from an identified hazard. Examples include wearing earplugs in a noisy environment or hearing and eye protection when using a loud piece of equipment that could throw projectiles.
What Happens After An Injury?
When an injury does occur, there is a good chance that it must be recorded and reported. OSHA Form 300 is a log of work-related injuries and illnesses used to classify injuries, their extent, and severity. Records must be maintained for five years and be posted every February through April on OSHA Form 300A. Rules and time limits on recordkeeping can be found at www.osha.gov. The full regulation is 29 CFR 1904. In addition, an organization should investigate injuries and determine if one of the above mitigation controls can be used to make the workplace safer. It is good practice to find out who in your organization is responsible for record keeping and investigations since a large part of your job as a FM is centered on safety.
If you don’t already have a Safety Manual created in your organization and don’t know where to start, I encourage you to download My Free Safety Manual. It took me quite a bit of time to create and can be customized to your facilities fairly simply.
This is the second of a three-part series on a safety program within facilities management. If you haven’t checked out the first article, please do! Maintaining and executing a safety program is essential in facilities, whether that falls to the responsibility of the FM or not. Learning how to set one up can be confusing, but the JHA is a great place to start by identifying all of the hazards that are present and then figuring ways to mitigate them. In our final article within the safety series, we will examine emergency management.
Thanks so much for reading! As always, please feel free to leave any comments. If you have a question, I’d be happy to answer it. Just shoot me an email at firstname.lastname@example.org.